Drug safety is among the main concerns of pharmaceuticals who fight to improve it. In fact, both the long-term and the high costs of drug development lead to an urgent improvement in productivity. Many studies have shown that cardiotoxicity is one of the main causes leading to drug withdrawal (Stevens et al., 2009). By predicting the safety of the molecules tested on relevant models, risk of drug withdrawal will decrease.
In this sense, 4Dcell develops new technologies where the 3Rs strategy (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is promoted decreasing the amount of animal studies and consequently the ethical issues due to the use of animal models (Langley et al., 2015).
This review describes the state of the art of cardiotoxicity in vitro models and related technologies.